Kesultanan Kutai Kartanegara ing Martadipura   1 comment

Sultanate Kutai or more complete is called the Sultanate of Kutai ing Martadipura (Martapura) is patterned Islamic sultanate was founded in 1300 by Dewa Agung Sakti Aji Batara in Kutai Lama and ended in 1960. Then in 2001 returned to exist in East Kalimantan after turned on again by the Government of Kutai District in an effort to preserve the culture and customs Kutai royal palace.

Revival of the Sultanate of Kutai dinobatkannya marked by the heir to the throne of the heir apparent of King Anum Prince Aji Surya Adiningrat became Sultan Kutai Martadipura ing with a degree of H. Mohamad Adji Salehoeddin II on September 22, 2001.

history

establishment

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Kukar kingdom stands at the beginning of the 13th century in an area called Stone Edge or Kutai Lama (now a village in the subdistrict Anggana) with the first king of the Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti (1300-1325). The kingdom was called by the name of the Kingdom of the Cape in Kakawin Nagarakretagama Kute (1365), which is one of the areas conquered in the island state Tanjungnagara by the duke of Gajah Mada from Majapahit.

In the 16th century, under the leadership of the Kingdom of Kutai King Aji Prince Panji Sinum chances, succeeded in conquering the kingdom of Kutai (or also called the kingdom of Kutai Martadipura or Empire or Kingdom of Kutai Martapura Mulawarman) located in Muara Kaman. King Kukar was later named the kingdom into the kingdom of Kutai Ing Martadipura as a fusion between the two kingdoms.

In the 17th century, Islam spread by riding Mr. parangan well received by the Kingdom of Kutai which was led by Aji King Crown Majesty of Nature. After several decades, as the King is replaced with the title of Sultan. Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris (1735-1778) was the sultan’s first aquatic mammal that uses the Islamic name. And then the royal designation was changed to the Sultanate Kutai Martadipura ing [1].

According to the Hikayat Banjar and Kotawaringin (1663), the country Kutai is one of the ground above the wind (north) to send tribute to the Maharaja Suryanata, Banjar-Hindu king (State Dipa) in the 14th century. Since 1636, the Kutai Sultanate of Banjar as claimed by one of vazalnya because Banjarmasin already has a sufficient military force to confront an ambitious attack Mataram Sultanate conquered the whole of Borneo and have occupied the territory Sukadana (1622) [2]. Previous Banjarmasin is vazal Sultanate of Demak (the successor of Majapahit), but since the collapse of Demak (1548), Banjarmasin no longer send a tribute to the government in Java. Around 1638 (before the treaty Bungaya) Sultan of Makassar (Gowa-Tallo) borrow Sand and Kutai, Berau and Karasikan (Sulu Archipelago / Banjar Strike) as a place to trade to the Sultan of Banjar IV Mustain Billah / Marhum Panembahan when Kiai Martasura was sent to Makassar and hold agreement with I Mangadacinna Daeng Sitaba Karaeng Pattingalloang Sultan Mahmud, who served the King of Tallo Malikussaid Mangkubumi for Sultan Raja Gowa years 1638-1654. [3].

In 1747, the Dutch East India Company recognizes Prince Tamjidullah I as Sultan of Banjar when actually he was just Mangkubumi. In 1765, the Dutch VOC Sultan Tamjidullah I promised to help the pro-Dutch East India Company to re-conquer the areas that separate them Kutai by appointment October 20, 1756. [4], because VOC intends to unite the areas in Kalimantan as the influence of VOC. Though Kutai under the influence of anti-La Maddukelleng VOCs. Prince Amir, the legitimate heir assisted Whitewater Turawe (anti VOC) tried to seize the throne but failed.

On August 13, 1787, the Sultan of Banjar Sunan Nata Alam made an agreement with the Sultanate of Banjar VOC made as VOC protectorate area while other areas in Borneo that long ago in the 17th century had become vazal Banjarmasin unilaterally handed over the Dutch East India Company property. 1778 Porcupines and Sukadana (mostly Kalbar) has been obtained from the Sultan of Banten VOC. Dutch East Indies government in 1809 to leave Banjarmasin (city Tatas) and submit the Tatas fortress and castle to the Sultan of Banjar Tabanio. Then the Dutch East Indies Dutch handed over to Britain for losing the war, Alexander Hare became the British representative in Banjarmasin since 1812. Dated January 1, 1817 Britain handed back to the Dutch East Indies, including Banjarmasin and surrounding region to the Dutch and later the Dutch renew the agreement with the Sultan of Banjar [4]. Kutai Affairs submitted as a region occupied Dutch East Indies in the Contract Agreement Karang Intan I on January 1, 1817 between the Sultan Sulaiman of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented the Resident Aernout van Boekholzt. The next treaty in 1823, the country Kutai delivered into the occupied Dutch East Indies in the Karang Intan Agreement Contract II on 13 September 1823 between the Sultan Sulaiman of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented Mr. Resident. Tobias [4].

Kutai reaffirmed the country including the areas occupied Dutch East Indies in Borneo by Adam al-Sultan Treaty Watsiq Billah with the Dutch East Indies which was signed in the Dutch lodge in Banjarmasin on May 4, 1826 or 26 Ramadhan 1241 H.

The transfer of the capital of the kingdom

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Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris, who is the son of Sultan Wajo La Madukelleng went to ground Wajo, South Sulawesi to take part in fighting the VOC with the Bugis people. Government of the Sultanate Kukar temporarily held by the Trusteeship Council [1].

In 1739, Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris died on the battlefield. After the death of Sultan Idris, there was a struggle for the throne by Aji Gift. Aji Imbut royal crown prince who was still small then rushed to Wajo [1]. Gift Aji later inaugurated his name as the Sultan of Kutai using the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin.

As an adult, Aji Imbut as the legal heir of the Sultanate Kutai Kutai back to the ground. By the Bugis and courtiers loyal to the late Sultan Idris, Aji Imbut crowned as the Sultan of Kutai with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin. Sultan’s coronation took place at Mangkujenang Muslihuddin. Since it began the fight against Aji Gift.

Resistance takes place with a strategy of strict embargo by Mangkujenang against Pemarangan. Sulu pirate fleet was involved in this resistance by attacking and hijacking against Pemarangan. 1778, Aji VOC Gift asking for help but can not be met [1].

In 1780, Aji Imbut Pemarangan retook the capital and was formally crowned as the sultan with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin in the court of the Sultanate of Kutai. Aji Gift sentenced to death and was buried on the island Jembayan [1].

Aji Imbut with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin moved the capital to the edges of the Sultanate of Kutai Pandan on September 28, 1782. The move is done to eliminate the influence of the bitter memories of the reign of Aji Gift and Pemarangan tuahnya deemed to have been lost. Edge Pandan name later changed to the Whitewater mean Appliances House King, over time the Stairs more popularly known as Whitewater Tenggarong and persisted until now [5].

In 1838, Kutai Sultanate led by Sultan Aji Muhammad Aji Imbut Salehuddin after died in that year.

British ships attack

In 1844, two ships under the leadership of James Erskine Murray’s trademark British Tenggarong into surface waters. Murray came to the Kutai to trade and ask for land to set up a trading post as well as exclusive rights to run a steamboat in the waters of the Mahakam. But the Sultan A.M. Salehuddin allow Murray to trade only in Samarinda region alone. Murray less satisfied with the offer of this Sultan. After a few days in the waters of Tenggarong, Murray fired cannon towards the palace and returned by the royal troops Kutai. The ensuing battle was unavoidable. Murray led the fleet finally defeated and fled toward the sea. Five people were injured and three people were killed from the fleet Murray, and Murray himself was among the dead are [5].

Tenggarong battle in this incident to the British. Actually, the British would retaliate against Kutai, but taken by the Dutch that the Kutai is one part of the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands will solve these problems in his own way. Then the Dutch sent a fleet under the command t’Hooft complete with carrying weapons. Arriving in Tenggarong, t’Hooft fleet attacked the palace of Sultan Kutai. Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin evacuated to the City Build. Kutai royal warlord, who holds a Long Awang Prince Senopati with his troops bravely fighting the fleet to defend the honor Kingdom t’Hooft Kukar [5]. Awang Long was killed in the fighting that is less balanced and Kutai Sultanate eventually defeated and subdued the Netherlands.

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On October 11, 1844, Sultan A.M. Salehuddin have to sign a treaty with the Netherlands which states that the Sultan of Kutai acknowledge and abide by the Netherlands East Indies Netherlands East Indies government in Borneo are represented by a resident who is domiciled in Banjarmasin. [6]

1846, H. von Dewall became the first Dutch civil administrator in the east coast of Borneo [5]. According Nederlandisch Staatsblad van Indië in 1849, the Sultanate of Kutai included in Zuid-ooster-based Afdeeling Bêsluit van den Minister van Staat, Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie, on August 27, 1849, No. 8 [7]

In 1850, Sultan A.M. Sulaiman leadership role Kutai Sultanate Martadipura Ing. In 1853, the Dutch East Indies government puts J. Zwager as Assistant Resident in Samarinda. It was the political and economic power still in the grip of Sultan PM Sulayman (1850-1899). In 1853 the population of 100,000 people Kutai Sultanate. [8] In 1855, the Sultanate of Kutai included as part of the de Zuid-en oosterafdeeling van Borneo. [9] In 1863, the kingdom of Kutai again entered into an agreement with the Dutch. In the agreement it was agreed that the kingdom of Kutai become part of the Government of the Netherlands East Indies.

The opening of the first coal mine

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In 1888, the first coal mines opened in Stone in Kutai Panggal by a mining engineer from the Netherlands, JH Menten. Menten also laid the groundwork for the first oil exploitation in the area of ​​Kutai. The prosperity of the region also seems more real Kutai making the Sultanate Kutai became very famous in those days. Pengeksloitasian royalties on natural resources in Kutai to Sultan Sulaiman [5].

In 1899, Sultan Suleiman’s son died and was succeeded by his crown Aji Mohammad Sultan Aji Muhammad Alimuddin.

In 1907, the first Catholic mission was established in Laham, West Kutai. A year later, the upper Mahakam is submitted to the compensation of 12,990 Dutch guilders per year to the Sultan of Kutai.

Sultan Alimuddin only reigns over a period of 11 years, he died in 1910. Because at that time heir apparent Aji Shocked still immature, the reins of government of the Sultanate Kutai then held by the Board of Trustees led by Prince Aji Mangkunegoro.

On 14 November 1920, was crowned as Sultan Aji Shocked Kukar with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikshit but this is also undergo much controversy as there are some relatives do not agree with the appointment of Muhammad Aji Such Parikshit, this is because the assumption that Prince Aji Soemantri one who entitled to appointed Sultan of Kutai. in some media also mentioned that the appointment of Muhammad Aji Parikshit due to the two brothers had died. This has invited a lot of controversy from various parties.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, Kutai economy growing so rapidly as a result of incorporation of Borneo, Sumatra Trade Co.. In those years, the capital of Kutai grown steadily acquired through surplus generated each year. Until 1924, the Kutai already has a fund of 3.28 million guilders – a fantastic amount for that period.

In 1936, Sultan A.M. Parikshit established a magnificent new palace and made of solid concrete. Within one year, the palace was completed.

The arrival of Japan

When the Japanese occupied the area of ​​Kutai in 1942, the Sultan of Kutai should be subject to the Tenno Heika, Emperor of Japan. Japan gave the Sultan an honorary degree by the name of the royal Koo Kooti.

The era of independence and the abolition of the sultanate

Indonesia became independent in 1945. Two years later, the Sultanate of Kutai to the status of the Autonomous Region into the Federation of East Kalimantan along the Sultanate other areas such as Bulungan, Sambaliung, Powder Mountain and Sand by forming the Council of the Sultanate. Then on December 27, 1949 entry in the United States of Indonesia.

Autonomous Region Kutai Kutai converted into Special Region which is the autonomous regions / areas based on district-level special emergency laws Th.1953 3.

In 1959, under Law no. 27 Year 1959 on “Establishment of Level II Areas of Borneo”, the Special Region of Kutai broken down into 3 second-level region, namely:

  1.    Regional Level II Kutai with capital Tenggarong
  2.    Aberdeen Township with a capital of Balikpapan
  3.     Township with a capital of Samarinda Samarinda

On January 20, 1960, held at governorate in Samarinda, APT Pranoto who served as Governor of East Kalimantan, with the name of the Minister of Home Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia inaugurated and take the oath three regional head for the three autonomous regions, namely:

  1.      A.R. Padmo as Regent Regional Level II Kutai
  2.      Capt.. Soedjono as Municipal Mayor of Samarinda
  3.      A.R. Sayid Mohammad as the Mayor of Aberdeen Township

A day later, on January 21, 1960 held at the Hall of the palace of Sultan Kutai, the Special Session of Parliament held Tenggarong Special Region Kutai. The core of this event is the handover of government from the Head Chief of the Special Region of Kutai, Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikshit to Raden Aji Padmo as Regent Regional Level II Kutai, Captain Soedjono (Mayor of Samarinda) and AR Sayid Mohammad (Mayor of Balikpapan). Kutai Sultanate government under Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikshit ended, and he was living a commoner .

Reanimation Sultanate Kutai

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In 1999, the Regent of Kutai, Rais Hasan Syaukani intend to revive the Sultanate Kutai Martadipura ing. Kutai Sultanate return is not with the intention to revive feudalism in the area, but as an effort to preserve historical and cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Kutai as the oldest kingdom in Indonesia. In addition, the revitalization of tradition Sultanate Kutai is to support the tourism sector of the East Kalimantan in an effort to attract tourists and foreign tourists.

On 7 November 2000, Regent of Kutai with Crown Prince Kutai H. Prince Aji Praboe Anoem Soerja Adiningrat facing President Abdurrahman Wahid at the Bina Graha Jakarta to convey the above purpose. President Wahid agreed and approved the return of the Sultanate of Kutai to the descendants of the crown prince Sultan Kutai H. Prince Aji Praboe.

On 22 September 2001, Crown Prince of the Sultanate of Kutai, H. Prince Aji Praboe Anoem Soerya Adiningrat crowned the Sultan of Kutai with the title of Sultan H. Aji Muhammad Salehuddin II. Coronation H.A.P. Praboe as the new Sultan of Kutai was held on September 22, 2001.

region

In its heyday until 1959, the Sultanate of Kutai ing Martadipura has a vast territory. Territory includes several autonomous regions in East Kalimantan province today, namely:

  1.      District Kukar
  2.      West Kutai District
  3.      East Kutai Regency
  4.      Balikpapan City
  5.      Bontang
  6.      Samarinda
  7.      subdistrict Penajam

Thus, the area of the Kutai sultanate until 1959, is an area of ​​94,700 km2.

In 1959, the Kutai Sultanate Kutai or Special Region is divided into 3 regions Local Government Level II, the Kutai District, the City of Balikpapan and Samarinda Municipality. And since it ended the reign of the Sultanate Kutai after the legalization of Local Government Level II Kutai District through Act No.27 Year 1959 concerning Revoking the Special Status Kutai Region.

Keraton Kesultanan

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Documentation of the palace of Sultan Kutai exist only in the reign of Sultan PM Sulaiman who was then capital in Tenggarong, after European explorers on an expedition into the interior of the Mahakam in the 18th century. Carl Bock, a Norwegian explorer who undertook an expedition in 1879 Mahakam time to make the hall of the Sultan’s palace illustration AM Sulaiman. The palace of Sultan Kutai in those days made of ironwood with a fairly simple form.

After Sultan Suleiman died in 1899, the Sultanate of Kutai then led by Sultan PM Alimuddin (1899-1910). Sultan Alimuddin who inhabit the new palace is located not far from the former palace of Sultan Sulaiman. Alimuddin Sultan Palace consists of two floors and is also made of ironwood (ironwood). This palace was built overlooking the river Mahakam. Until Sultan A.M. Parikshit ascended the throne in 1920, the palace is still used in the wheels of the royal government.

In 1936, the wooden palace of the Sultan of Alimuddin was dismantled because it will be replaced with a more solid concrete building. For the time being, the Emperor Parikshit and his family later occupied the old palace of the Sultan Sulaiman. Construction of the new palace is being carried out by HBM (Hollandsche Beton Maatschappij) Batavia with Estourgie architect. It took one year to finish this castle. After the palace of the physical building completed in 1937, only a year later, ie in 1938 is officially the new palace inhabited by the Sultan of Parikshit and his family. The inauguration of this magnificent palace implemented quite festive with disemarakkan fireworks in the evening. Meanwhile, the new palace had been the founding of the palace of the Sultan Sulaiman worse then torn down. At present, the area of ​​former old palace has been replaced with a new building that is building Serapo LPKK.

After the Kutai Sultanate rule ended in 1960, the palace buildings with an area of ​​2270 m2 has remained the residence of the Sultan PM Parikshit until 1971. Kutai palace then submitted to the Government of East Kalimantan Province on 25 November 1971. On February 18, 1976, the Provincial Government of East Kalimantan Kutai handed this former palace to the Ministry of Education and Culture to become a museum managed by the name of the Museum Mulawarman country. Inside the museum is presented diverse collection of relics of the sultanate of Kutai, including thrones, statues, jewelry, battle armor, a bed, a set of gamelan, a collection of ancient ceramics from China, and others.

In the palace of Sultan Kutai environment there is the tomb of the king and royal family Kukar. Tomb or gravestone of Sultan and the royal family is mostly made of iron wood that can be durable with a carved Arabic writings. Sultans are buried here include Muslihuddin Sultan, Sultan Salehuddin, Sultan Sulaiman and Sultan Parikshit. Only Sultan Alimuddin are not buried in the palace, he was buried at his estate in the Mount Gandek, Tenggarong.

On 22 September 2001, the crown prince H. Prince Aji Surya Adiningrat Praboe Anum Sultan was crowned with the title of Sultan Kutai HAM Salehuddin II. Restoration back to the Sultanate of Kutai is an attempt to preserve the cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Kutai as the oldest kingdom in Indonesia so as not to be eaten during extinction. Kutai Regency Government has built a new palace called the Sultan of Kutai Kedaton for now. Kedaton form new connections at the Masjid Jami ‘Aji Amir Hasanuddin has a design concept that refers to a palace during the reign of Sultan Kutai Alimuddin.

Knighted

In the Sultanate Kutai Martadipura Ing, knighted used by the royal family is Aji. Aji title placed before the name members of the royal family. In knighted Kukar known use of the title as follows:

  •     Aji Sultan: used to mention the name of the Sultan for the royal family.
  •     Queen Aji: a title given to the consort of the Sultan.
  •     Prince Aji: title for the son of Sultan.
  •     Princess Aji: title for the daughter of the Sultan. Degree Aji Aji Prince Puteri equivalent.
  •     Raden Aji: Aji degree above the level of Bambang. This degree is awarded by the Sultan of Kutai nobility only to the man who holds a degree previously Bambang Aji.
  •     Bambang Aji: a level higher degree of Aji. This title can only be granted by the Sultan of Kutai the nobility to the men before the title Aji only.
  •     Aji: Kutai royal title given to descendants. Aji title can only be derived by men nobility Kutai. Aji woman who married a normal man can not lose title to their children Aji.

If a man married a woman Aji from Kutai the nobility itself or from among the common people as well as other tribes, the sons and daughters are entitled to hold the title Aji. But if a woman Aji married to men who are not royal Kutai, then their child can not obtain a degree Aji, Aji unless the woman is married to the nobility of Arab descent (Sayid).

If a married woman of Arab descent Aji (Sayid), then the sons and daughters earned as follows:

  •     Aji Sayid: This title was revealed to the son of Aji woman who married a man of Arab descent.
  •     Aji Syarifah: This title was revealed to the daughter of Aji woman who married a man of Arab descent.

Sayid and Aji Aji title Syarifah Aji remain equivalent to regular degree. Meaning that this degree remains under Bambang Aji and Aji Raden.

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Posted Juli 8, 2011 by arimuda in museum

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One response to “Kesultanan Kutai Kartanegara ing Martadipura

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  1. good…

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